Acceptance bank 
A Bank that promises to pay a bill of exchange in return for a fee.

That part of a message intended to speed the reader’s response or visit: a present, a discount, an opportunity to try the product, a game or contest, etc. – all generally with a time limit.

Accompanied transport 
Transportation of a fully roadworthy vehicle by another means of transportation (e.g. a train or ferry boat), accompanied by its driver.

The ACP (African, Caribbean, Pacific) countries signed an agreement of association with the European Community on 15th December 1989 at Lomé. The ACP States comprise 69 countries. Under the Agreement, certain types of products are exempted from customs duties and enjoy preferential tariffs. 

Act of god 
An extraordinary and unexpected natural event, accidents of a nature beyond human control and without the possibility of prevention such as flood, lightning or hurricane usually quoted as ‘force majeure’.

Active customers 
Customers who have made a recent purchase (although the definition of “recent” depends of the type of product or services sold).

Ad valorem 
In proportion to the value: A phrase applied to certain freight or customs duties levied on goods, property, etc. set as a percentage of their value.

Address header 
Part of your mailing (generally the letter) displaying the address of the recipient and that will appear in the address window of the envelope.

Address traps 
Addresses expressly integrated in a file to detect fraudulent use or ensure that a mailing has been properly received.

Advance (advance bill) 
Money (bill) paid (written) before the goods have been sent off.

Advance in export currency 
Bank financing of cashflow for exporters who grant their foreign buyers a term of payment . If the foreign currency advance is granted in the billing currency of the commercial contract, it also serves as a means of covering exchange risks.

Advance in import currency 
Bank financing of cashflow for importer, allowing them to pay foreign sellers in cash. If the foreign currency advance is granted in the billing currency of the commercial contract, it also serves as a means of covering exchange risks.

Advising bank 
In the context of documentary credit, this is the intermediary bank that advices the documentary credit to the beneficiary following a request by the issuing bank. The advising bank, however, does not necessarily offer any guarantees to the beneficiary and merely conveys the information.

After-sale service 
A service provided by the supplier of a product after it has been sold, with a view of keeping it in good (working) order.

The work carried out by a person (the agent) chosen to act on behalf of another (the principal).

Air container 
Container adapted to the standards for air navigation.

Air mail.

Total amount of purchase made by a client in a given time period (see Frequency and Recentness).

The American National Standards Institute is the American standardisation body. It publishes American standards and informs companies about the standards in force in the United States.

Arrival notice 
Written notice sent by a carrier to a nominated party advising of the arrival of the vessel and/or a certain shipment.

ATA carnet 
An ATA carnet is an international customs document instituted in 1961 by the Brussels Convention. The Convention allows an exporter to transit his goods temporarily through several successive countries without having to make a customs declaration at each frontier.

Automatic teller machine, cashpoint.

An ATR is a certificate for the movement of goods within the framework of EC/Turkey relations. This document allows exporters to benefit from the free movement or preferential systems. The ATR document has to be stamped by the customs authorities of the exporting state.

Loss of customers.

At warehouse 
Said of a price of goods which includes delivery and loading.

An airway bill of lading is a contract of transport issued in triplicate by the shipping agent for an air shipment.


BAF and CAF are two kinds of adjustment that either increase or decrease the basic freight. BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor) is a rectification that depends on fuel price trends. CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor) is a rectification that depends on the exchange rate trends of the currency in which the tariff has been established.

Baltic exchange (the) 
An international exchange for freight and shipping in London.

Bank acceptance (BA) 
A bill of exchange that is accepted by a bank for a fee.

Bar Code 
Code made up of black vertical lines that represent numbers, used for identifying various objects and products.

Base for levying a tax.

A continuous and systematic evaluation of the products, services and methods of competitors and/or companies considered to be the best performers.

Written unconditional order whereby an individual or legal entity (the drawee) makes a commitment to pay a certain sum to another individual or legal entity (the drawer) at sight or after a defined period.

Bill of exchange, (b/e), Draft 
Document whereby a creditor (the drawer) gives his debtor (the drawee) an order to pay a certain sum on a given date (the due date), either to himself or to a third party (the beneficiary).

Bill of lading 
A document issued on behalf of the carrier which evidences a contract of carriage by sea.
The document has the following functions:
1. {{A receipt for goods, signed by a duly authorized person on behalf of the carriers.
2. {{A document of title to the goods described therein
3. {{Evidence of the terms and condition of carriage agreed upon between the two parties.

Billing Currency 
The choice of payment (billing) currency (local or foreign) should take into account commercial considerations (complexity and exchange risk for buyers in case of local currency), and the economic viability of the operation (exchange risk involved for sellers who invoice in foreign currency).

Sales resistance on the part of the client that encourages them not to follow up with your offer. It is important to identify and destroy these blocks in your communication.

Board Member 
Individual or corporate body, appointed from among the shareholders. As members of the Board of Directors, the task of the board members is to manage the company collectively. They are invested with wide-ranging powers to act on behalf of the company.

Bonded Warehouses 
Bonded Warehouses. These are zones under Customs control that permit the storage of goods prior to customs clearance.

Brand, business, or product image 
Subjective image of a business, brand, or product, in terms of certain signals transmitted to the public.

Breach of contract 
Cancellation is brought about when the execution of the Contract is interrupted for a 6-month period following the occurrence of a claim-generating event as mentioned in the policy.

Brokers are commercial agents who are legally independent of the companies for which they work. They deal with their clients for each brokerage transaction without being bound by a long-term contract.

The British Standards Institution is the standardisation agency in the United Kingdom (see the United Kingdom in the Atlas on this site).

Business assets 
All tangible movable assets (equipment, machinery, etc.) and intangibleassets (customers, goodwill, corporate name, sign, lease right, licences and authorisations, etc.). It is important to note that this never includes the building(s) in which the business is run.

Business to Business (B to B) 
Sometimes B2B; indicates a company to company business relationship.

Business to Consumer (B to C) 
Sometimes B2C; indicates a company to individual relationship.

Buying group 
Body that centralises purchases in order to obtain the best possible prices.


Transport of goods between two ports or places located in the same country.

Abbreviation for Cash Against Documents. The shipping documents are handed over to a bank with instructions to release them to the importer only against payment r acceptation of drafts/ bills.

Group of 14 exporting countries practising free trade in agricultural products. It was established in 1987 in Cairns, Australia ; its purpose is to voice the common interests and concerns of its members in international negotiations on agriculture. The Group is composed of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand and Uruguay.

The Common Agricultural Policy enacted in 1962 aims at modernising the agricultural sector. The CAP is also designed to guarantee a decent income to farmers while maintaining price stability in the market. The goal of the CAP is three-fold: free movement of agricultural products within the EU, setting of prices in Europe and preference for the Community (EU) products.

Document signed by customs which provides a detailed synopsis of the equipment professional take along with them when travelling outside the European Union, and exempting such professionals from formalities upon their return to Belgium.

Carriage forward 
A condition of sale pursuant to which the cost of transporting goods is paid by the receiver.

Cash on delivery (COD) 
Cash on delivery

Cash price 
The price a seller will accept if payment is made immediately.

CCT (Common Customs Tariffs) 
The Common Customs Tariff is a codification which determines customs duties at Community level.

Centralised account 
This is a current account opened in the books of a foreign bank wherein all settlements, transfers or cheques are centralised in the country in which the foreign bank is located.

CET (Common External Tariff) 
The Common External Tariff is a full tariff applicable to imported goods.

Certificate of loss 
It is a means by which the damage or average surveyor establishes the nature and scale of damages and losses, in a written report.

Certificate of origin 
This certificate proves the origin of the goods. It is usually issued by a Chamber of Commerce. A certificate of origin is often required for export or import purposes, as goods of a certain origin enjoy the advantages of a preferential system.

Chain store 
One of a number of similar shops belonging to the same company.

In Maritime law, it is a contract by which a ship owner undertakes, in return for a fee, to make a ship available to a charterer for transportation of goods or persons.

Cheshire Label 
Refers to a brand of addressograph machine – producing address labels glued to mailing supports – envelopes, letters, reply slips, etc. The general preference now for direct printing of personalized addresses on the support, without labels.

International Convention for the transportation of Goods by railway.

Core target 
That group of individuals which, in the light of their habits and profile, are most likely to be interested in your product or service.

Right of a person (the creditor) to claim something from someone (debtor), usually an amount of money.

Claim-generating event 
Situation or event mentioned in the policy which, by causing the non-payment of the debt or cancellation of the contract, can bring the guarantee into play.

Clearance sale 
An event held by a trader to dispose of old stock, usually at reduced prices, to make way for new stock.

Administrative procedure which constitutes the final stage of a customs or accounting transaction and whereby it is possible to check, by comparing the documents, whether the formalities have been accomplished correctly.

Cash On Delivery is a system of payment wherein the carrier collects the amount due and ensures its repatriation. This system is to be used only if the exporter is sure that the buyer will accept the goods and if the consignments are packages with a low unit value.

Combined transport 
Intermodal transport where the main leg is by rail, navigable waters or sea and where the initial and/or final legs of the journey take place by road over the shortest possible distance.

Commercial Court 
This is a non-criminal specialised jurisdiction of the first degree with judges and a court clerk. The “lay magistrates” (tradesmen acting as judges) have a voluntary mandate and are responsible for judging disputes between partners, traders or those relating to commercial laws.

Community goods 
This expression refers to goods: either obtained entirely from the Community’s customs jurisdiction , with no input of goods imported from countries or territories outside the Community’s customs jurisdiction, or imported from countries or territories outside the Community’s customs jurisdiction but found in a free zone.

Contract – and, by extension, the legal entity itself created by this contract – whereby two or more entities agree to allocate to a common enterprise their goods or services with the objective of sharing the profits or the economies that may arise from the arrangement. It can also be constituted by an act of law, or by the will of one individual.

Computer technology and business consulting firm 
Computer service specializing in management of databases and with extensive expertise in address standardisation, de-duplication, scoring, providing specific information in addresses, etc.

The party such as mentioned in the transport document by whom the goods, cargo or containers are to be received.

Using direct marketing to transform new and still uncertain buyers into satisfied customers, ready to follow up quickly on their first purchase and recommend you to their friends and neighbors.

Consolidation (Consolidated Shipment) 
Shipment for which an agent (forwarding agent or other) consolidates several individual shipments to make a single shipment in order to benefit from preferential prices.

Consular invoice 
Some countries require a consular invoice, whose details indicate the goods dispatched and mention the identity of the principal and consignee as well as the value of the shipment. Such invoices are certified by the authorities in the country of destination and must be presented to a customs agent.

Person who uses goods, resources or services to satisfy his needs.

Consumer Price index (CPI) 
A set of figures showing the movement of prices of everyday goods and bought by the public over a period of time.

Total value of goods and services purchased by consumers over a given period of time.

An item of equipment as defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for transport purposes.

Convenience food 
Food specially made and packed so that it can be cooked quickly and easily.

A professional able to formulate and draft a message that, through a clever choice of words and arguments, can convince a maximum number of your customers and prospects to respond to your offer by returning the reply slip attached to your mailing.

Corporate name 
Name under which a company engages in business. It can be a patronymic name, or a pseudonym, or a brand. It is one of the elements of the assets of a business.

Cost and freight 
A condition of sale for goods carried by sea pursuant to which the seller pays for loading and transporting goods but the buyer pays fthe insurance costs once the goods have been loaded.

Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail.

Counterfeiting consists in forging, copying or imitating without authority or right, that which is original or genuine.

Credit Insurance 
In general, an insurance policy concluded with a private insurance company which is used in place of bank guarantees. It is designed to cover manufacturing, credit, political and commercial risks borne by the seller. There are various types of policies: individual policies, policies covering all risks, subscription policies, personal policies.

Credit limit (comprehensive policy) 
Determines the maximum amount that the OND accepts to cover by debtor.

Credit sale 
An arrangement pursuant to which a buyer takes goods that he / she will pay for by an agreed date in the future.

Customer files 
Information (addresses, figures, observations, etc.) stored in a permanent memory base such as a hard disk. Initially, it designated a series of data sheets.

Customs agent 
A customs agent is an authorised customs clearance professional. A forwarding agent can also act as a customs agent.

Customs airport 
Airport opened by the competent technical authority for public and international air traffic. The airport has a customs house or a sub-station that functions either on a permanent or a temporary basis.

Customs bond 
Customs or excise document in which a bonder undertakes to fulfil the obligations relating to the specific rules applicable to goods.

Customs classification 
The customs classification is also called the-HS code. The classification is a codification with 12 digits that determine the customs duty rate applicable to the product type.

Customs house 
Place where all or some customs formalities (submission of customs declarations etc.) are performed.

Customs Clearance Outwards (CCO) 
This document is a simplified export form which is used for the purpose of simplified procedures.

Customs procedures 
Destination for customs purposes given to goods by submission of a customs entry and which determines its situation as regards the regulations.

Customs value 
The customs value is the value of goods at the Community border. This value serves as a basis for the calculation of customs duties.

Cash with order.


Loss or damage to transported goods.

File containing history and information concerning the customer, which makes it possible to make very precise selections based on behavioural criteria.

Deadline date 
Note written by computer to indicate the date of use of addresses in order to avoid reusing them during the renewal of the mailing operation.

Form of partnership based on the contractual franchising of a brand. The franchise contract essentially involves the hiring out of a trade name and the guarantee of territorial exclusivity for the dealer.

Debit note 
A document that informs a customer of money owed to a company for goods or services supplied.

Debtor default 
Default means that the debtor is unable to honour his obligations or backs out of honouring them for no legitimate reason.

Natural or legal person who effects a customs entry: – in his name and on his own behalf (own account declarant); – in his name and on behalf of an economic operator, importer and/or exporter (indirect representation declarant); – in the name of and on behalf of an economic operator, importer and/or exporter (direct representation declarant).

Operation making it possible to identify identical addresses and two different lists and eliminate the doubles.

Del credere agent 
A person who sells goods for another and who agrees to pay for them if the customer fails to do so.

Delivery note 
A document that is sent together with the goods to a customer, and that details these goods ; the customer signs the delivery note to acknowledge his/her having received the goods.

Despatch – dispatch 
The sending of goods to their destination.

Destination customs house 
Customs office where goods are presented after a transit operation.

Export/import customs declaration. This document authorises the entry or exit of goods not cleared.

The Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) is the German standards body.

Direct export 
Mailing option offered by emporiki-v4 that allows access to logistical conditions and rates for the destination country for 2,000 letters or more per station and per destination.

This form of retailing, invented in the United States, consists mainly in selling at the lowest possible price. The low prices are achieved by reducing margins, making grouped purchases and cutting down overheads (the sales premises often resemble warehouses). This form of retailing has recently become very popular everywhere in the EU.

Direct Injection 
Export/import customs declaration. This document authorises the entry or exit of goods not cleared.

Any dispute that is likely to be brought before a court. Any litigation falling within the competence of a court.

Distribution network 
Set of persons and companies involved in the distribution of a product, from the producer to the consumer.

A person or an organisation that supplies goods to shops, etc. for a producer or manufacturer.

DIY superstore 
Do-it-yourself outlet.

Documentary letter of credit 
Banking technique which gives a guarantee to the exporter that he will be paid for the sale and to the importer that he will receive the goods as agreed in the commercial contract. It is a commitment by the importer’s (or the buyer’s) bank following a request made by him and on his behalf to pay a certain amount, determined by the commercial contract, to the exporter (or seller) against documents conform to the instructions of the Letters of Credit.

Duplicate data given in a file.

DP signifies “delivery permit”. A DP is a document issued by customs and authorising importers to take delivery of the goods.

DP (Delivery Permit) 
DP signifies “delivery permit”. A DP is a document issued by the customs and allows importers to take delivery of the goods.

Selling goods in a foreign market at very low prices.

Duty-free Purchase 
Purchase exclusive of ” value-added tax” (VAT) that any foreign (third country) resident can make subject to certain conditions relating to his/her person, to the type of goods and to compliance with certain formalities.

DV1 is a customs document specifying the customs valuation. It is used in cases of import of goods from non-Community countries.


Euro Banking Association. This association of banks was initially set up to enable the settlement of transactions in ECU, via the E.C.S. (Euro Clearing System). The system has since been modified to deal with transactions in Euros. The EBA manages the E.C.S., which allows its 62 member banks to exchange flows. Net settlements are carried out in cash at the end of the day, on the EBA account, held in European Central Bank pounds.

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, set up in 1991, is a financial institution whose goal is to assist the economic reconstruction of Central and East European countries.

The EC acronym represents the European Union’s trademark. The EC trademark proves that a product fulfils the health, safety and technical requirements. The EC trademark is only valid in the European Union framework.

Buying and selling of goods and services with transfer of funds via the Internet.

Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) 
Group of agreements and institutions created by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992 together with the euro currency.

The European Central Bank lays down the Euro zone policy in the field of interest rates and exchange policies with other countries. Its chief task is to maintain price stability within the Euro zone. It is independent of national governments and has taken the place of the E.M.I (European Monetary Institute), which was established as a forerunner of the E.C.B.

Euro Clearing System.

The European Coal and Steel Community was established in April 1951 according to the Schumann Plan, by which France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg undertook to abolish customs duties, quotas and monetary restrictions affecting intra-Community trade in steel, coal and iron. Member countries ratified the agreement for a period of 50 years. The ECSC Institutions served as models for the EEC Institutions with which they were merged in 1957.

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) refers to 4 countries : Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. These countries signed a free trade agreement with the EEC in 1992. The agreement came into force on 1st January 1994 and led to the establishment of the European Economic Area.

The European Investment Bank is the European Community’s financial institution. It collects savings from capital markets and directs them towards the funding of investment projects. The loans granted by the EIB are meant to bolster the most underprivileged regions.

A government order to stop trade with another country.

Boarding a ship or aircraft.

The Euro OverNight Index Average replaces the ONIA (OverNight Index Average). The EONIA is the reference of the day to day rate of the Euro, which is calculated by the Central European Bank on the basis of the panel of banks participating in the definition of EURIBOR.

European Patent Office.

European System of Central Banks comprises the ECB and the 15 national central banks of each Member State. Its role is to enforce the decisions of the ECB in each State.

The European Standards Committee is a European body responsible for setting European standards. The ESC enables companies to bring their products in line with European standards (EC trademark). It is composed of 160 European organisations.

Escape clause 
A condition in a contract that frees the parties from carrying out the terms of the contract in some specified circumstances.

Etimated time of arrival.

Estimated time of departure.

EUR2 – EUR1 
€ documents are movement certificates, which are the equivalent of certificates of origin used in preferential trading between the EU and associate countries. € 2, used for postal shipment only, is not stamped by the customs house, unlike € 1.

The Euro is a full-fledged currency but it existed only as bank money from January 1st 2002, when coins and notes replaced the national currencies only in 2002, at the end of the so-called transition period. The value of the Euro was fixed definitively on 1st January 1999 : 1 Euro = 40.3399 Belgian Francs.

Euro Interbank Offered Rate is the rate at which euro interbank offers money within the euro zone are offered by one prime bank to another prime bank. It has replaced the national indices of the European Union States.

European Commission 
A European Union administration that makes routine decisions and proposes new laws.

European Union (EU) 
An organisation of 28 European countries defined under the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. It makes laws in a wide range of public policy areas and aims for cooperation between member countries in foreign and security policy, justice and home affairs.

Envelope filling 
The combining of different parts of your mailing into one carrier envelope. For small quantities, envelope filling can be done manually (do-it-yourself) or with the help of specialized machines or equipment.

Exchange of goods declaration 
Monthly declaration used within the framework of intra-Community trade relations (acquisition/delivery) that the operator having acquired or dispatched Community goods is obliged to make. The exchange of goods declaration makes it possible to monitor collection of VAT and to compile national foreign trade statistics.

Export licence (import licence) 
The licence is an administrative document to control external trade, authorising the import or export of certain products subject to the quota regime. 
Document delivered, as a counterpart for a security, by the agricultural authorities to export certain agricultural products to countries outside the European Union.

Ex quay 
Is said of a price for goods where the seller pays for all costs up to delivery to a named port, including unloading onto the quay and onto road or rail vehicle.

Ex works 
Is said of a price where the buyer pays for transporting the goods away from the factory.

Excise Tax 
Indirect consumer tax on certain categories of products.

To send an item, a service, an idea or a person from one country to another to be sold.

Export credit 
This technique covers all the financing mechanisms to which an exporter may use. The different types of export credit are the so-called administered credits, purely secured credit and open credit (simple bank credit). These different types of credit can be divided into two groups: buyer’s credit, which is a form of credit granted to the buyer to allow him to settle his debt in cash; and supplier credit, which is a discount on the debt held by the buyer who has granted a term of payment to his buyer.

Expropriation (investment policy) 
Includes all forms of nationalisation of the local enterprise, including creeping expropriation. This can arise from various measures taken by public authorities, taken simultaneously or otherwise, whose accumulation denotes a confiscatory nature.


Combines the characteristics of a debt recovery procedure, a technique to cover payment risks and a means to finance debts. The factor settles the seller’s receivables in advance. This is not a discount but a payment by subrogation with a subrogate receipt.

Fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) 
Cheap dayly items bought and used up quickly.

A Forwarder’s Certificate Receipt is a document issued by a forwarding agent, which testifies that the goods have been taken over from the seller and thereby advising that the exporter has placed the goods at the disposal of the buyer.

Ship that brings freight from medium sized ports to ports served by large capacity ships.

File plan 
Selecting files that you will use for your mailing in terms of your defined target.

Filing for trademark 
Request to a national patent and trademarks office to register a name, image, logo, etc. serving as a brand-name. Registry makes the person filing the legitimate owner by specificying the model of the trademark and listing the products and services to which it is applied.

Final proof 
Printed version of a document that the client examines and signs to indicate approval for the definitive printing run.

Financial statement 
Takes into account all key financial data (expenses committed, sales realized, etc.), making it possible to determine gross margin and profitability of an operation.

Force majeure 
Standard clause found in transport contracts enabling parties (in particular the carrier) to disclaim all responsibility in case of damage to or loss of goods for reasons beyond his control (e.g. a natural disaster or war).

Forfeit financing 
Forfeiting or forfeit financing is a discount-based financing technique based on del credere discounts (against the exporter) of short-term and long-term export credit, evidenced by commercial papers endorsed or guaranteed by a bank acceptable to the forfeiting banker.

Forward exchange contract 
Technique to hedge against exchange risks, which allows the bank to guarantee to its client the rate at which it will sell him foreign currency (futures buying) or buy it from him (futures sale), at a future date.

Forwarding agent (Forwarder) 
The forwarding agent is a professional who organises all the aspects of the carriage of the goods from departure to arrival at destination.

Free Movement 
One of the principal characteristics of the domestic European market: the movement of goods between Member States of the European Union should take place without obstacles of any nature, be they quantitative, tariff-related, fiscal or normative. This principle has, in fact, been enshrined as an objective in other free trade and Customs Union agreements.

Free on truck (FOT) 
A condition of sale where the seller pays to deliver the goods to a specified transport depot and ensures that they are loaded onto trucks or lorries ready for transportation.

Franchised trade 
Franchised trade involves forming groups of traders in order to increase their individual purchasing capacity and to strengthen their position between upstream wholesalers and downstream consumer associations. There are three main forms of franchised trade: groups of retailers, voluntary retail buying chains and franchises.

Franchising is a concept first developed in the United States. It defines a form of long-term contractual co-operation between two legally independent entities (the franchiser and the franchisee) with a view to marketing goods, services or techniques. The franchiser pledges to help the franchisee in the technical, commercial or accounting fields. In return, the franchisee pays an entry fee and royalties on an annual basis. He is also obliged to comply with quality standards laid down by the franchiser and to participate in promotional operations organised by the latter. For the franchiser, this type of contract is a good means of breaking into a market without having to pay real-estate costs. The franchisee, for his part, can implement a sophisticated trade concept without having to pay for all the development costs.

A term in an export sales contract to show that goods will be delivered free of transport costs to a place specified by the buyer.

Free on board (FOB) 
A condition of sale where the seller pays for transportation and insurance of the goods until they are loaded onto the ship.

Free on rail (FOR) 
A condition of sale where the seller pays to deliver the goods to a railway station and ensures that they are loaded onto wagons ready for transportation.

Free trade 
A situation where there are no restrictions (tariffs) on the import and export of goods.

Zone where goods can be stocked without payment of any taxes and charges till they have crossed the border.

Free Trade Zone 
A part of the territory of a state where any goods introduced are generally regarded, in so far as import duties and taxes are concerned, as being exempted (Kyoto Convention.)

Number of purchases completed by a client during a given period (see Amount and Recentness).


Gross Domestic Product.

General average 
Damages of this kind are specific to sea and inland waterway transport and are caused by an event that would jeopardise the ship and its cargo if the captain were not to take any initiative in the common interest (e.g. part of the cargo is sacrificed to avoid a shipwreck). In such a scenario, the extraordinary expenses incurred and the value of the goods sacrificed will be paid for by all those who benefit from the action.

General terms of sale 
The General Terms of Sale help to legally identify the conditions of the sale.

General Average 
Abbreviation: G/A
Intentional and successful act or sacrifice which is carried out to safeguard vessel and cargo. When a vessel is in danger, the master has the right to sacrifice property and/or to incur reasonable expenditure. Measures taken for the sole benefit of any particular interest are not considered general average.

Discipline related to Marketing that involves analyzing the behaviour of economic actors while taking into account notions of space, particularly the trading area of a business.

Globality (principle of) 
Obligation to subject the exporter’s entire turnover or a group of contracts and risks to insurance, agreed with the OND and defined in the policy.

Government action 
These are local authorities’ decisions, deficiencies and impairments that are of an arbitrary and discriminatory nature.

Gross margin 
An operation’s real profitability defined by sales achieved, not including taxes, minus the total amount of expenses not including taxes.

GSP (Generalized System of Preferences) 
The GSP constitutes the tariff-related preferences for some developing countries. These tariffs translate into exemptions or reductions in customs duties.

Guaranteed proportion 
Percentage up to which the OND covers a risk. The guaranteed share is applied to the indemnifiable losses to calculate the indemnity.


HAD (custom agent’s fee) .
It represents the fee paid to the custom agent for its clearing activities.

Harmonised System (HS) 
System, under the aegis of the World Customs Organisation, for the designation and codification of goods, adopted in an international convention, in force since 01.01.1989. It comprises a six-digit classification of products, general rules for interpretation and classification notes.

Host country (investment policy) 
Country where the investment is effected.

High Cube container 
Container that respects ISO standards in length and width but has an unconventional height (9’6″ i.e. 2.90m instead of 8′ – 2.44m). At the moment, only 40′ containers come into this category.

Nodal Point for collection, dispatch and redistribution in an entire geographical area.


International Air Transport Association.

“L’Institut belge de Normalisation” (Belgian Standards Institute) is the body responsible for compiling standards and promoting their use in Belgium.

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, established in 1945, under the Breton Woods agreements, finances reconstruction projects and grants loans aimed at stimulating growth in deficit countries.

The International Chamber of Commerce advises companies with regard to their international trade policies. In addition, it defends the interests of business in international trade.

The International Electrotechnical Commission is the technical industry’s international standards body. The IEC sets international standards in the fields of electronics and telecommunications.

The International Monetary Fund is an international organisation which grants loans to countries facing balance of payments difficulties.

The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is a specialized organisation of the United Nations, which aims to improve maritime safety and the prevention of pollution caused by ships. The IMO also deals with maritime liability, compensation and international aspects, and the facilitation of maritime traffic. An IMO number is a number that identifies ships. It is awarded by the IHS Fairplay, to merchant vessels over 100 tons. Associated with a shell, it is invariant regardless of changes in ownership, flag or ship’s name. It consists of the letters “IMO” followed by a seven digit number (e.g. IMO 1234567).

To bring in goods, services, ideas or people from one country into another.

Import licence 
Document issued by the ministry of agriculture, the customs and excise authorities or regional tax authorities of the relevant country for the importing of certain farm products.

Former client who has not made a purchase during a given period.

Inactive customers 
Customers whose last purchase was not made recently (as above, the definition of “recent” depends of the type of product or services sold). Active and inactive customers should make up two distinct parts of your customer database, and be treated differently (special offers, reminders, MD XXX, motivation, etc.)

Abbreviation of INternational COmmercial TERMS. These are international definitions for a common understanding of the clauses in international Trade. They have been fixed by the International Chamber of Commerce, which first published them in 1936. They were last updated on 1st January 2010. Consult our Tips Incoterms 2010 for more information.

Indemnifiable loss 
Debit balance of the loss account, which is used to calculate the indemnity.

All indemnities are calculated by applying the guaranteed share to the debt balance in the loss account.

Insurance period 
Period of one year beginning on the date when the policy is signed.

Interest economic grouping (IEG) 
Grouping of natural or legal persons having a unique legal status, distinct from a company or an association. Its purpose is to facilitate the carrying out of an economic activity run together by its members, by pooling certain aspects of this activity: sales counter, import or export services, research laboratory, etc. The grouping is a legal entity and has to be registered.

Intermodal transport 
Carriage of goods using various modes of transport but in the same containers, without a break in load. The container may be a road vehicle or an intermodal unit of transport.

International Bank Guarantee 
A guarantee is a commitment given by a bank to pay a sum of money in accordance with the terms and conditions set out in the operation guarantee text.

Contribution made by the insured party to the local enterprise, as described in the Particular Terms.

An abbreviation for “I owe you”.

Issuing bank 
This is the bank that has issued the documentary credit. It is under an obligation to pay if the documents submitted are in accordance with documentary credit requirements.

Intermodal Transport Unit.


Land container 
Container that meets the standards set by the International Railways Union (IRU) for optimal use mainly in the case of a combination of road and rail carriage.

Large capacity container 
Container that respects ISO standards in length and width but has an unconventional height (9’6″ i.e. 2.90m instead of 8′ – 2.44m). At the moment, only 40′ containers come into this category.

Layout artist 
Creative person capable of ensuring the graphic conception, layout, and choice of illustrations for your mailing in order to make your communications attractive and efficient.

Least developed countries: This abbreviation includes some 36 of the poorest countries of the world, listed by the United Nations to be the “least developed” of the developing nations. Most of these countries are situated in Africa, while some are in Asia. Haiti is the only one to be found in the northern hemisphere.

Legal entity 
The notion expresses the autonomy of the company or group from its partners or management. A “legal entity” has the same attributes as an individual (natural person): a name (registered name), address (corporate address), duration, nationality, etc. and some rights and obligations there are independent of the members that form it.

Legal redress 
Legal process applicable to traders, artisans, farmers and private law corporations defaulting on payments, in order to bail out the company, continue its business, keep its employees on and clear its liabilities.

Lease management 
Contract whereby the owner or the management of a business grants total or partial rights to an individual to run it on his account and at his own risk in exchange for the payment of a rent or a share in the profits.

Letter of Credit 
Abbreviation: L/C
A written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to the seller (beneficiary) at the request, and on the instructions of the buyer (applicant) to pay at sight or at a determinable future date up to a stated sum of money, within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents.

List price 
The manufacturer’s recommended retail price for an item.

Loading track 
Track on which the loading, unloading and transhipment of ITUs (Intermodal Transport Unit) is carried out. The transhipment can be from wagon to wagon or from wagon to road vehicles and vice-versa.

Loading Unit 
Container or swap body.

Local company (investment policy) 
Natural person or legal entity established in the host country, or the subsidiary or establishment in which the investment is made.

Any activities for the purpose of transporting a given quantity of a product at the lowest cost to a destination when and as needed.

Loss account 
Enables the definition of the indemnifiable loss, including :
– for non-payment claims: as a debit the unpaid amount of the claim and as a credit any sum collected in connection with the insured claim, in particular following the realisation of securities or resale of recovered goods.
– for cancellation claims: as a debit the amount of the costs incurred in implementing the contract from the time of its conclusion and as a credit all amounts collected with regard to the insured contract.

Loyalty operations 
Operations aimed at maintaining the loyalty of active customers.


Mail-order (MO) sale 
Mail-order selling is a type of distribution where there is no physical contact between the seller and the buyer. The products are sold through a printed or soft-copy catalogue and sent by mail.

Mail Merger 
Operation involving solicitation, securing client loyalty, and business creation by mail (more frequently known as “mailing”).

Marine (or air) transport document which lists all the goods loaded at a port (or airport) to be sent to another port (or airport).A list of all the cargo or passengers carried by a ship or aircraft.

Maritime container 
Container conforming to the standards set by the International Standards Organisation for use in cellular marine transport.

Market basket or Consumer Price Index 
Average cost of products bought by one consumer during a given period (year, quarter, etc.)

Market site (e-Commerce) 
Retail site selling goods and services over the internet. E-Commerce can be conducted for the larger public (B to C- Business to Customer e-Commerce) or between businesses (B to B- Business to Business e-Commerce).

Set of techniques applied to detect the consumer’s or user’s needs and continuously adapt production and sales accordingly. Marketing tries to determine the product to be sold, its price, the appropriate distribution network and the promotion required for it.

Marketing Strategy 
Marketing strategy is often formalized by what is called a “Marketing Plan.” It is defined for a period of two to five years and is a document created and shared by the business’s management. The development of a marketing strategy systematically occurs with the writing of preconditions of a marketing report on the business (or organisation’s) situation. This report includes: • an internal section identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each of the business’s activities, • an external section identifying the opportunities and threats posed to the markets and more generally on the business environment, • an analysis of the appeal/assets needed to create a hierarchy of profit centres among the different business activities.

Markings serve to describe the nature of goods by way of various symbols identifying the type of goods (toxic products: poison, dangerous products: inflammable alcohol, etc.) and to identify the place of discharge.

Free-trade area between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Chile and Bolivia are associate members.

Memorandum of association 
An official document that, by law, shows that a company exists. It states the name and address of the company, the amount of authorized share capital and how it is divided, a statement of limited liability, the purposes for which the company was formed, etc.

The Multi-fibre Arrangement is an international agreement in the textile sector. The Arrangement is a follow-up to negotiations on import quotas for textiles from developing countries. The MFA brings together 42 countries, including Turkey.

The Most-Favoured Nation clause forms part of the first principle of the World Trade Organisation and is one of “non-discrimination”. This clause aims at putting an end to the advantages granted to a country as compared to the others. This clause obviously applies to the signatories of the treaty.

Middle man 
A person or organisation that buys goods from the producer and sells them to the customer, with a profit.

Minority protection 
Regulations that protect minority shareholders.

Manufacturer’s recommended price.

Multimodal Terminals 
Installation for exchange of intermodal transport units from one mode to another where other technical and commercial operations linked to combined transport can also be carried out.

Multimodal transport 
Carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport.


North American Free Trade Area: a common market composed of the United States, Canada and Mexico.

Newly Industrialised Countries: Group of countries, principally from South-East Asia, which have undergone a phase of intensive industrialisation during the 70s and the 80s and are enjoying today a standard of living very similar to that of the developed countries (e.g.: South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia etc.).

Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier Abbreviation: NVOCC 
A party who undertakes to carry goods and issues his own name Bill of Lading for such carriage, without having the availability of any own means of transport. Notify Party The party to be notified of arrival of goods

Non-guaranteed proportion 
Portion not covered by the OND, for which the insured party has to assume exclusive responsibility.

Non-payment occurs when there is a failure to recover the sums due under the Contract within the waiting period.

Non-tariff barriers 
Entire set of non-tariff restrictive measures implemented by a country seeking to protect its market from foreign competition. The most common examples are quotas, technical or health standards or any enactment favouring domestic companies.

Non-monetary transaction 
This is a technique available to the exporter when his buyer does not want to or is not in a position to financially settle his dues. The settlement is made in the form of the provision of products or services of a value equivalent to that of the goods exported. The different kinds of non-monetary transactions include barter, counter purchase, buy back, clearing and offset contracts.

No longer lives at the indicated address; incorrect address, death, etc.


Ocean bill of lading 
This is a contract for shipping goods by sea.

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development includes countries such as EU countries, the United States of America, Canada, Japan, etc. The main objective of the OECD is to study the economic situation and to help economically disadvantaged countries. The OECD also analyses the various restrictions linked to international trade.

Business proposal that is the basis of your Direct Marketing message.

Office for Harmonisation of the Internal Market 
Office for Harmonisation of the Internal Market.

To balance something or compensate for something.

On Board 
On Board signifies “embarked”. The words “on board” signify that the goods have been placed properly on board the aircraft or ship. This marking is almost indispensable for documentary credit.

Organisation of Petrol Exporting Countries: An organisation gathering 13 oil-producing countries whose aim is to coordinate production and market prices.Open Top Container A freight container similar in all respect to a general purpose container except that it has no rigid roof but may have a flexible and movable or removable cover, for example one made of canvas or plastic or reinforced plastic material normally supported on movable or removable roof bows.

Open door policy On Board 
A system of importing goods with no or very few restrictions or import duties.

Order form 
A printed form to be used by a customer requesting goods or a service.

Organised trade 
Term encompassing all types of networked organisations (chain-stores, dealerships, franchises, cooperatives, voluntary retail buying chains, etc.).

Goods are considered to originate from a country if they are obtained entirely in that country or have undergone there final processing or substantial value addition, which is economically justified, in an enterprise equipped to that effect, such that this operation creates a new product or constitutes a significant stage of production. In matters of origin, the European Community usually constitutes a single country.

A store that sells goods for a company.

Ship with one of its parameters exceeding 295 m (length), 32.25 m (external width) or 13.5 m (maximum draught). These ships cannot navigate through the Panama canal.


Material used to wrap, contain and protect products.

Packing list 
The packing list is a document that itemizes in detail the contents of a particular package or shipment.

Generally in wood, a pallet allows for easier handling of goods. The standard dimensions are: 100 mm x 1200 mm (ISO) and 800 mm x 1200 mm (CEN).

Ship whose parameters permit navigation through the Panama canal: maximum length 295 m, maximum external width 32.25 m and maximum draught 13.5 m.

Computer-assisted publication. Layout and creation of all types of printable documents with the aide of computer equipment. Materials include mailings, booklets, brochures, fold-outs, reports, summary reports, etc.

A payment of part of a larger sum to be paid later.

Particular average 
Damage of this kind, in the sphere of transport, concerns the goods themselves. It may be in the form of losses, missing items, damage suffered during transport or during handling prior to or after carriage of goods.

Payment Guarantee 
A guarantee is a commitment given by a bank to pay a sum of money in accordance with the terms and conditions set out in the operation guarantee text.

The list of the people employed by the company, and the amount to be paid.

Patent Co-operation Treaty.

Perils of the sea 
This term refers to all the risks likely to occur during transport by sea.

Technique that thanks to computer technology, allows for the inclusion of specific elements for each recipient in a mailing (name, address, business history, etc.)

Photo library 
Business that provides a wide choice of quality photographs and/or illustrations to individuals or professionals by a variety of means: slides, CD-Rom, Internet, etc. Depending on the specific case, it might be necessary to obtain the rights to use a given image.

Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate 
This certificate is issued by an official department of agriculture and attests that the plants and plant products are free from parasites or toxic substances.

Combination of rail and road transport.

PO Box 
Post Office box.

Insurance contract (credit insurance or investment insurance) concluded between the exporter and the Credit Insurer.

Political risk 
This is the risk of non-payment due to the responsibility of the State. This risk can be covered by credit insurance or a confirmed Documentary Credit.

Port of exit 
Last customs office from where the goods physically leave European Union territory.

Point of sale.

Characteristics of a product expressed in its field of competition, defining itself by means of its proximity, to or distance from, its rival products and/or the expectations of consumers.

Per procurationem, on behalf of or with the authority of someone else.

A plan or statement of prices set by a company for its products and services.

Principal franchisee 
The franchisee who holds title to a contract of exclusivity for the development under a franchise of a trade name in a given territory (regional or national). It is a frequent practice with companies that wish to set up shop outside their national territory, in particular when they are unfamiliar with the country in question.

Pro forma invoice 
The pro forma invoice is like a commercial contract in miniature and is perfectly suited to commercial transactions concerning ordinary goods.

Concept of the relation between a result (desired goal) and the means used to achieve it.

Term designating both the price strategy and its results, in order to define a price level.

Primary yield 
In the case of a mailing operation completed in two rounds, refers to the percentage of responses received to your mailing in relation to the number of messages sent.

Producer Price Index (PPI) 
A set of figures showing the movement of prices of goods and services purchased and manufactured by industry over a period of time.

Proportion of compensation 
Proportion between the total amount of the debt at the time of indemnification and the actual amount indemnified.


Measurement and value control of an address in a given file. The “qualification” of a prospect also means to measure his interest in the proposed offer. A method consists of including some questions in the response part of the mailing (“qualification questionnaire”).

Qualitative market research 
The examination of people’s attitude towards what, where and how much they buy.

Set of properties and characteristics features of a product or service that confer upon it the capacity to satisfy expressed and implicit needs.

Quantitative market research 
A study of the demand for certain products by finding out the number of possible clients.

The period during which an arriving vessel, including its equipment, cargo, crew or passengers, suspected to carry or carrying a contagious disease is detained in strict isolation to prevent the spread of such a disease. 
Quay (= Pier) Part of a wharf which is intended for the mooring of vessels.

Quantitative restriction on the import or export of a product either as a general rule or, as is more often the case, on the basis of its country of origin or destination.

Amount stated as the price according to tariff for certain services to be provided or issued to a customer with specification on conditions for carriage.


Deadline cleared since the last purchase made by a client (see Frequency and Amount).

All amounts recovered after indemnification in relation to the indemnified loss.

Redemption rate 
Also called response rate. These two terms designate the percentage of responses obtained by a mailing in terms of the number of messages sent.

New printout of a text or illustration on something that has already been printed or created. For example, refitting envelopes that already have your business’s logo and address with a blurb or catcher.

Subsidy allowed for the export of some of the Community’s agricultural products to third countries.

Registered office 
Specific place identified in the articles of association of a company, which constitutes its address and determines, in most cases, its nationality.

Registered trademark 
Inscription in the national registry of trademarks by a registry office such as INPI of a trademark that has been filed and considered as valid, after examination or rejection of any objections. Official notice is given of such inscription.

Release for free circulation 
Customs regulation which confers upon third party goods a community goods status after application of commercial policy measures, the fulfilment of other formalities for import into the customs jurisdiction of the European Community and the collection of the customs duty legally due.

Repeat order 
A new request for goods that have already been purchased earlier on.

Reply slip or card 
Part of a mailing that the addressee returns to the sender if he or she so desires. If possible should be coded to permit analysis of results by list.

In the United States, a representative is an internal sales agent, that is, he is an employee of the company he works for. He is generally entrusted with a well-defined sales territory and maintains a continuous relationship with the company’s partners (for instance, wholesalers and retailers).

Research directory 
Website that classifies the sites it selects by theme. Specialist companies analyze the content of the sites and create summaries for the orientation of visitors.

Reservations – Reserve 
With reference to documentary credit, a bank can decide to pay under reserve due to discrepentcies in the documents. For damage incurred during transport (visible or non-visible damage), the importer must issue a declaration called a “reserve”. This document must be explicit and unambiguous and must be issued in written form within the seven days following the delivery.

The sale of goods to the general public, especially in shops.

Retention of title (clause) 
The retention of title clause signifies that until the goods are paid for, they remain the property of the seller.

To send or take goods back to the shop.

Return on investment 
Sales resulting from your operation, as compared to the cost of the operation. The advantage of Direct Marketing is that it allows for very quick return on investment.

Roll-On-Roll-Off (Ro-Ro) 
More commonly called Ro-Ro (from Roll-On-Roll-Off), this technique helps a vehicle to enter/exit a ship on its own or, in case of a land route, a train.

Business specialized in taking charge of the sorting of your mail into postal bags in function of their final destinations. Frequently, the router can also perform folding and envelope filling.

Sorting mail into postal bags in function of their final destinations. Folding and envelope filling are also often offered.


SAD (Single Administrative Document) 
The Single Administrative Document (SAD) was set up by the European Community Council on 1st January 1988 with the purpose of standardizing customs documents, harmonizing codification and simplifying procedures in international trade exchanges.

Sale contract 
Legal formalisation of a transaction carried out between two parties : seller-exporter and buyer-importer. It defines the purpose, conditions, compensation and choice of arbitration for a commercial transaction.

A single item or part of a whole product that can be looked at to see what the rest is like.

Distribution of promotional offers in the form of paper or a product sample, at a given point in time, in a specific place or geographical area in order to create direct contacts with a particular target group of consumers.

Sales representative 
A sales representative is an agent who is responsible, on a full time basis, for negotiating and possibly concluding contracts for the sale, purchase, hire or provision of a product or a service, in the name of or on behalf of producers, industrialists, traders or other sales representatives.

Giving a score to each client or prospective client from a database in order to more efficiently target and prospect clients. This score can be determined by external data or data calculated from behaviour.

Special Drawing Rights were introduced by the IMF to serve as an international monetary reserve. SDRs can be used in transactions between the IMF and national governments. The unit value of an SDR is determined on the basis of a basket of currencies (USD, JPYen, €, GBP). SDR is the unit of payment of compensations in international carriage.

To close something in such a way that it can only be torn or broken open.

Secondary yield 
The percentage of sales made at the end of the second round of your mailing operation, in relation to the number of contacts generated by the first round (new mailing, direct contacts, telephone calls, etc.)

Dividing a file into multiple segments by various criteria such as age, gender, socioprofessional category, geographic location, purchasing behaviour. This can also be applied to your own client files, by purchasing history, buying potential, etc.

Any non-motorised vehicle intended to be connected to a motorised vehicle such that a part of the trailer rests on the motorised vehicle and a substantial part of its weight and the weight of its load are taken by the said motorised vehicle. Most semi-trailers are specially adapted for combined transport.

Shelf life 
The length of time that goods, especially food items, can be on sale and remain fit for use.

Short-term Realisation of Receivables from Overseas 
Short-term Realisation of Receivables from Overseas is a short-term financing technique for exporters who grant their foreign buyers a certain term of payment. The realisation of the invoice is possible up to 100% of its value.

Single market 
The free trade association between members of the European Union, to allow money, goods, services and people to move freely within the Union.

Small and Medium-sized enterprise (SME) 
The European definition is a maximum of 500 employees, a turnover not exceeding 40 million euros, and with less than 25% holding by one or more non SME enterprises – with the exception of investment or venture capital companies. Usually these SME identification tests do not apply to research organisations or consultants.

Research method that involves sending the researcher on-site to observe or have direct contact with the subject population (ethnographic approaches, for example). The goal is to dispense information. This is consistent with finding new product suppliers.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 
A list in which industries and services are coded numerically for reference and research purposes.

Standard of living 
The level of material comfort and wealth of a person or community.

Statistical value 
The statistical value corresponds to box no. 46 of the Single Administrative Document. This value refers to the value of goods including transportation costs and insurance, up to the country border.

Legal mechanism by which the Credit Insurer, having indemnified the exporter, holds the exporters rights and shares and can rightfully exercise them against the debtor.

A firm placed under the direction of a parent company which holds the majority of its shares. As a legally independent entity, the subsidiary enjoys management autonomy.

SWOT analysis 
SWOT is an abbreviation for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. It is a way to analyse one’s chances on a market.

Super High Cube container 
Container that does not comply with ISO standards in length, width or height. The dimensions are variable and can sometimes be as long as 45′ (13.72m), 48′ (14.64m) or 53′ (16.10m).


Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System.

The acronym T1 refers to an external Community transit operation.

The acronym T2 refers to an internal Community transit operation.

The acronym T2L refers to goods of Community origin not moving under Community transit.

The T2M document certifies the Community affiliation of fisheries products. The T2M helps to obtain an exemption from customs duties and a waiver of any quantitative restrictions on fisheries products caught outside the territorial waters of Member States by a ship registered in the Community. The T2M is also required for fish caught by a Community-registered ship that are transhipped onto a ship not registered in the Community.

The T5 document is a form within the framework of the CAP, which certifies the export of agricultural products.

Tare, dead weight 
Weight of the ITU (Intermodal Transport Unit) or of the vehicle without any load.

Target price 
The price set by the European Community under its Common Agricultural Policy as a reasonable average amount of money for farmers to receive for their productions.

Integrated tariff of the EC. The TARIC classification is a 10-digit codification, which serves to integrate Community regulatory measures such as preferential tariffs, tariff quotas and anti-dumping duties. The common customs tariff is based on the TARIC.

An amount of money that must be paid when particular goods are imported into a country.

Tariff category 
This is the designation of goods in terms of customs tariffs.

A formal offer to supply goods or carry out work for a stated price.

Place of transhipment from one means of transport to another.

Test pages (or waste) 
Printing of a small quantity of documents to allow for the proper functioning of machines and the production of quality print outs. You can estimate it to be about three to five percent of your overall printing.

TEU (Twenty feet Equivalent Unit) A standard unit based on a ISO container of 20 feet length (6.10 m), used as a statistical measure of traffic flows or capacities. One standard 40′ ISO Series 1 container equals 2 TEUs.

Charges corresponding to the handling services provided during loading/unloading operations at ports and airport terminals.

TIR carnet 
A book with tear-off slips used for an international road transit operation.

International Road Transport (Transport International Routier) : a European arrangement for using international documents for sending goods by road.

Track gauge 
Distance between the inside faces of the rails of a railway track. It is normally 1.435 m large. Other gauges are generally used in some European countries: for instance, 1.676 m in spain & Portugal, 1.524 m in the Russian Federation.

Procedure that follows the movements of an Internet surfer over time via cookies.

Symbol, graphic representation that distinguishes products or services from a person or corporate body.

Trade marketing 
Common mindset of manufacturers and distributors with the goal to better satisfy the needs and wants of consumers, to improve profitability and their competitive position while mutually keeping in mind their constraints and specificities.

Trade union 
An organisation of employees working in the same industry, or doing similar jobs, that represents its members in discussions with Management.

A trader is an enterprise whose function consists of purchasing on his own account and reselling in his own name, with a margin he decides upon himself. The agency of a trader helps to overcome the lack of knowledge of international markets, while reducing the difficulties caused by international practices as also helping better organise risk-management. The trader’s profession is based on a geographical or product-wise specialisation.

Trading area 
Geographic area where your clients and prospective clients are located. You limit your actions generally to this area, but you can also imagine operations to extend your trading area to increase your sales potential.

Any vehicle without a motor intended to be connected to a motorised vehicle, with the exception of trailer trucks.

Transfer of the entitlement to indemnities 
The profit from the insurance, that is to say, the right to receive indemnities in the event of a covered claim, can be transferred to a third party (for example the bank financing it) on agreement from the Credit Insurer.

Transfer risk 
Risk resulting from an event or decision by foreign authorities that prevents the transfer of the amount of the debt paid by the debtor.

Transformation rate 
This rate is defined by the percentage of clients or prospective clients transformed into buyers. For example, the number of sales completed in relation to the number of free estimates requested as generated by a mailing to prospective clients.

Transhipment consists of changing the mode of transport en route.

Customs regulation which allows, subject to certain guarantees, the movement of goods with suspension of duties, taxes and other economic, fiscal or customs’ measures.

Transit certificate 
Attestation of payment of toll showing proof of the trips made by a truck on the highway and enabling transport companies to benefit from a more favourable axle tax system.

Twist lock 
Standardised fastening piece to lock an ITU (Intermodal Transport Unit) onto a ship or the vehicle transporting it.


Unaccompanied transport 
Transportation of a fully roadworthy means of transport by another means of transport (e.g. a train or ferry boat), without the presence of the drive

Unit cost of a message 
This is obtained by dividing the total cost of your mailing by the number of messages sent. Included in your overall budget, this figure enables you to measure the effective cost of a sale and hence the profitability of your operation.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 
An organisation set up by the United Nations to help third world countries export goods.

Newer version of a file that includes corrections, deletions, and address changes.

The Uniform Rules and Usage are the texts drawn up by the International Chamber of Commerce for the correct usage of banking techniques in international trade. They have a legal standing in this field and reference is to be made to them in case of litigation. The most commonly known URU relates to documentary credit, URU 500, applicable since January 1, 1994.


General indirect tax on expenses included in prices, applied at different rates to all sales of goods and services except in cases where legal exemptions have been granted.

Very large capacity container 
Container that does not comply with ISO standards in length, width or height. The dimensions are variable and can sometimes be as long as 45′ (13.72m), 48′ (14.64m) or 53′ (16.10m).


Waiting period 
Period between the maturity date of the unpaid debt and the date when the policyholder can make the claim.

A large building where goods are kept.

Document subscribed to by a trader and whose payment is guaranteed by a security for the goods displayed in “general stores”. However, hotel, petrol and industrial warrants come under specific rules and constitute securities that cannot be dispossessed by registration with the clerk of the commercial court (with the exception of agricultural warrants which are registered in the magistrates’ court).

An organisation that buys large quantities of goods from manufacturers and sells them to retailers who sell directly to the public. The wholesaler buys in order to resell to traders, retailers or companies.

Official deed or private agreement or a decision by a court of law withdrawing a replevin, cancelling a mortgage or an objection and conferring once again the authorisation in respect of the goods or right that had been suspended.

World bank 
The central bank, controlled by UN, that lends money to member states.

Working hours 
The time during which shops and offices are open for business.

World Intellectual Property Organisation.

The World Trade Organisation was created in 1947 under its old appellation “GATT” (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). The principal objective of the WTO is to promote international trade and put an end to protectionism. The WTO has over a hundred signatory countries. Currently, the WTO is seeking to remove tariff-related hurdles and to establish common regulations in order to bring about total trade liberalisation.


Response rate to an offer in terms of the number of messages sent. If the offer is made at two different times, the terms used are primary yield and secondary yield.